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  #1

4) An ↑ in intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal pressure produced by expiring against a closed glottis is called the "Valsalva Maneuver". With the valsalva maneuver, all of the following physiological effects are seen except:

a) ↓ venous return to the right heart
b) ↓ cardiac output
c) ↓ central venous pressure
d) ↑ cerebrospinal fluid pressure
e) ↑ heart rate




  #2

i will choose E


  #3

4) Answer: c
The Valsalva m. by ↑ intrathoracic pressure, will ↑ jugular venous pressure (i.e. ↑ central venous pressure). This ↑ in pressure is accompanied by a ↓ in venous return to the right heart, ↓ the cardiac output. As compensation, the heart rate will ↑.





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