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An infant is born with a unilateral cleft lip and palate.Previous studies have shown a concordance for this trait in Monozygotic twins of 0.40 and in Dizygotic twins of 0.04.Tha incidence of cleft lip and palate in the general population is 0.001.If these parents have a second child,the risk for unilateral cleft lip and palate in that infant is approxmimately:

can someone plz explain how to work this out.


Cleft lip &/ palate is a multifactorial inherited disorder [genetic + environmental component]...
So the probability for second child is as that of a dizygotic twin which reflects the transmissibility of genetic component....
It must be 0.04 or 4%


if only the genetic component is involved(not multifactorial),then how will we calculate.
also,when do we use the monozygotic twins concordance?



If only genetic involved !!!- It depends on mode of inheritance...prevalence, penetrance, etc.
Refer to Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in Genetics notes.

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