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You have just finished conducting a case-control study to measure the
association between alcohol use and lower respiratory tract infections. The
most appropriate method to control for smoking as a confounder is
a. Matching
b. Restriction
c. Randomization
d. Stratification
e. Multivariate modeling


Is it D?


could it be a - matching? You can match (group) the participants in the study based on smoking habits and hence control the confound...
Am I right?




b - restriction


Matching is a technique
used in the design of the study to control for confounding. Subjects
enrolled in a study are matched for age, gender, smoking, or any variable
that is not being analyzed. This technique is not used for large cohort studies
as it would often be too time-consuming, restrictive, and expensive to
find a match for each subject entering the study. Therefore, controlling for
confounding is done in the analysis when a large group is recruited. Matching
is mainly used when dealing with small case-control studies where the
number of subjects enrolled would be too small to yield statistical results if
stratified by subgroups. Randomization is used in clinical trials to control
confounding (sample size needs to be largeā€”see the answer to question
20). Matching cannot be used in correlation studies or cross-sectional studies:
these are descriptive studies to assess disease occurrence and they do
not have control groups to test a hypothesis.

so D is the answer


I dont understand, but based upon your explanation, A seems to be the answer. Sorry for revoking an old post, but can somebody explain ....I didnt get this went over my head.


  1. Is the Following Corrent .. bassed upon explanation to control Confounding Bian
  • Case-Control - Stratification
  • Clinical trial - Randamization
  • cohort Study - Matching
  • Cross section - Stratification

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