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 cong.synd. vs. heart defects  

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Match the ff. congenital synd. with the cardiac defects:

1.Cong. Rubella --- A.Aortic Insuff.
2. Turner B. total anomalous pulm. venous retrn.
3. Di George C.dextrocardia
4. Down's D.PDA
5.Kartagener's E.Endocardial Cushion Defect
6.Williams F.supravalvular stenosis
7.Marfan's G.COA


here are the answers:

1) Congenital Rubella - PDA (although peripheral pulmonic stenosis is more common, but most questions look for this association)

2) Turner's - Coractation of Aorta (very characteristic, although bicuspid aortic valve is also fairly common in these individuals)

3) Di George - TAPVR (part of the 22q11 deletion sequence/CATCH 22 syndrome - causes variety of conotruncal defects)

4) Down's - Endocardial Cushion Defect (most common defect, although VSD also occurs commonly)

5)Kartagener's - Dextrocardia (part of the Triad of Kartagener's - situs inversus and dextrocardia, recurrent sinopulmonary infections and Infertility)

6) William's - Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis (Elfin Facies Syndrome - persons have a "Cocktail Party Platter" personality, hypercalcemia is an associated finding)

7) Marfan's - Aortic Insufficiency

these associations are fairly straightforward.

hey guys i'm new to this forum. i've just given step 1 and about to start off preparations for Step2. i'm an IMG from India. any suggestions regarding how much time time it roughly takes for preparation for step2. since i'm working full time so i need to plan in advance. any and every suggestion would be really welcome.



PS: other imp associations that you should know:

Infant of Diabetic Mother - hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Asplenia Syndrome - Cyanotic CHDs with dec Qp

Polysplenia Syndromes - Acyanotic CHDs with Inc Qp

Holt Oram and Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius (TAR) syndrome - ASD


Lithium exposure in utero (mother on Li in pregnancy) - Ebstein's Anomaly

there are many more but these are the essential ones. hope these suffice for now. lemme know your feedback about these


Well done dr vic!
With ur kind of reasoning from all of my questions seems like ur ready for step 2 exam.


wow drvic ur ready for the exam!



i'm still very nervous for my Step1 score which i'm expecting in another few days' time... the exam went by in a blur...studied only 3 months for the end i was thinking maybe it wasn't enough...let's see

i have started off with my preparation for step 2, but study hours are patchy because i'm working full time. let's hope i can complete my preparation by Jan end...planning to give the exam in march maybe

wish all u guys in the forum good luck and my best wishes for your preparation!




i think u'll score very well in step 1. im planning to take step 2 in feb.
best of luck to u.

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