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thank you very much ..
thanks for this great work, and sharing! God Bless
first of all thanks for the great post, hope u got a great score
in post 127, cvs, its written paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea due to rt heart failure, probably a typo as its due to left... if still updating please edit...
once again, thank you so much... these transcripts have been invaluable
Hey gik ... Happy thankgsgiving !!
thanksgiving.jpg (15 KB, 5 downloads)
Hey guys - out of curiosity, how do you actually study from goljan audio letures? do you have a printed copy of the notes/slides to follow along?
hey does anybody have the goljan slides.......if u do could uuuuu plssss send it to the below given id asap...email@example.com.....i would really appreciate if u cud help.......
Post 4: (Dated: Jan 15 - 2009)
You need proteins around lipids to dissolve in water.
Ferritin: soluble form of iron ---> best marker for diagnosis of iron dificiency anemia or hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis.
Hemosiderin (Insoluble iron storage), Stored in MP and BM, stained with Prussian Blue Dystrophic calcification: Calcium loves to calcify damaged tissue, normal serum calcium.... (Fat necrosis, ATH, aortic stenosis, hemolytic anemia)
Aortic stenosis: two valves doing job of 3 ---> stenosis ---> Dystrophic calcification
Primary Hyperparathyroidism most common cause of Hypercalcemia
Metastatic calcification: Hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia ---> Ca deposits in normal tissue.
Cong bicuspid aortic valve most common cause of aortic stenosis in USA ---> 2 valves instead of 3.
If u cant see a central area of Pallor ---> spherocyte
Spectrin: Needed to keep a bi-concave disc, if its defective ---> spherocytosis.
Ubiquitin: A stress protien
Intermediate filaments: framework of the house ---> when damaged ---> ubiquitin ubiquinate them
A liver with spaces in it ---> fatty liver
Ubiquination: Mallory bodies = alocoholics ---> fatty change
Silver stain Neurofibillary tangles = Alzheimer, Creutzfeld-Jakov disease.
Tau protein associated with Neurofibillary tangles
Parkinsons: lewy bodies in substantia nigra - dompamine decreased
Cell cycle: Labile cell, division via stem cells (BM, Skin, Intestinal crypts) are in cell cycle ---> most affected by drugs ---> specific or non-specific drugs - BM supression, diarrhea, rash on skin (due to presence of stem cells in these tissues).
Stable cells - G0 phase, stimulated to divide (Liver, spleen, Kidney, Smooth muscle, endometium) - stimulated by hormone or growth factor.
Permanent cell can not go in to cell cycle ---> can do hypertrophy only.
Smooth muscle can undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well
The length of the cell cycle is decided by the length of the G1 stage
Proliferative phase can vary the most in menstrual cycle ---> analogous to G1 stage ---> once ovulated it cannot vary
Kinase always means phosphorylation.
Term: Phosphorylate = Activation (Glucagon - activate protien kinase) ; Dephosphorylate = De-Activator (Insulin - de-activate protien kinase)
In-active cyclin-D dependant kinase ---> Activated by cyclin-D ---> G1 phase makes cyclin-D
Once Cyclin-D is made in G1 phase it activates Cyclin Dependant kinase
The key area in cell cycle to control is going from G1 to Gs Phase ---> Most critical period ---> if mutation in G1 phase and went in to Gs phase ---> cancer potential
Security check point ---> before going into S phase ---> RB (Ch13) suppressor gene prevents the cell from going into S phase
When phosphorylated by CDK its inactive
P53 #1 for human cancer (Guardian of the cell ---> gives time to cell to correct errors ---> if severe DNA damage ---> apoptosis)
HPV- inactivates Rb n P53 gene (either One of the gene gets mutated ---> cell goes from G1 to S phase)
If no Rb protein ---> Retinoblastoma, osteogenic sarcoma, breast cancer.
Codman’s triangle seen in: osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, subperiosteal abscess.
Vinca Alkaloids works on mitotic spindles(made from periwinkle plant); Paclitaxel on M Phase (chemotherapy,yew tree); Colchicine (use in acute gouty arthritis), Griseofulvin ---> M phase
Etoposide ---> G2 phase
MTX, Bleomycin ---> S phase
MTX, used in rheumatoid arthritis, inhibits DHF reductase ---> can Cause macrocytic anemia.
Atrophy = decrease in tissue mass, decrease cell size, less mitochondria --- does't have enuff organeles to survive.
Hydronephrosis is mostly caused by renal stones ---> increase pressure in cortex n medulla---> ischemia ---> atrophy of renal tubules.
ATH, Alzheimer (B amyloid protein, in layers 3,5,6 destroyed), ALS ---> brain atrophy, neuron degeneration ---> reduction in mass of brain
Casts --> decrease in muscle mass.
Hypopituitarism ---> adrenal gland atrophy (zona reticularis and fasiculata ONLY)
ACTH responsible for glucocorticoid (Z. Fasciculata), and sex hormones (Z. Reticularis); Not aldosterone (zona glumerulosa)
Oral thyroid ---> Natural thyroid goes down ---> thyroid atrophy.
Cystic Fibrosis (defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator at Chr.7) ---> problems with secretions of exocrine part ---> block lumen ---> pancreas atrophy
Atheromatous plaque in renal vessel --->Renal vascular hypertension ---> Renin high ---> diseased kidney get atrophied, other kidney hypertrophy.
If you block G2 phase, you have 4n chromosomes (no mitosis) ---> increase in size of cell ---> copies of structures inside cells
1n - sperm
2n - Diploid cell
3n - Cancer cell or some trisomy disease
Hyperplasia left unchecked is predisposing for cancer (EXCEPT prostate)
Unopposed estrogen (no progesterone) cause endometrial hyperplasia ---> atypical hyperplasia ---> endometrial cancer.
Prostate hyperplasia does not predispose to cancer.
Hi, Thanks for posting these. My english is not that good and my hearing is bad....these help me review again some words I missed catch.
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