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• Bence Jones Protein • • multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)
• • Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
• Bilateral breast cancer • Lobular carcinoma
• Bilateral renal cell carcinoma • Von Hippel-Lindau
• Birbeck Granules • • histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
• Bladder trabeculation • BPH
• Bloody nipple discharge • Intraductal papilloma
• Blueberry muffin baby • Rubella
• Blue Bloater • • Chronic Bronchitis
• Blue Sclera • Osteogenesis imperfecta
• Boot-Shaped Heart • • Tetralogy of Fallot
• Bouchard’s Nodes • • osteoarthritis (PIP)
• Boutonniere’s Deformity • • rheumatoid arthritis
• Bronze Diabetes • Hemochromatosis
• Brown Tumor • • hyperparathyroidism
• Brudzinski sign • meningitis
• Brushfield Spots • • Down’s, on iris
• Call-Exner Bodies • • granulosa cell tumor
• Carbon monoxide poisoning • Hyperemia, edema and necrosis of globus
• Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy • • Chagas’ Disease
• Central Nuclei in Muscle • Muscular dystrophies
• Chancre • • 1° Syphilis, painless firm ulcers
• Chancroid • • Haemophilus ducreyi, painful soft ulcers
• Charcot Triad • • multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)
• Charcot-Leyden Crystals • • bronchial asthma
• Cherry-red spot on macula • Tay-Sachs, 50% of Niemann-Pick
• Cheyne-Stokes Breathing • • cerebral lesion
• Chocolate Cysts • • endometriosis
• Cholesterol clefts • atherosclerosis
• Chordae tendinae short and fused • Rheumatic heart disease
• Chronic staph infections • Chronic granulomatous disease, a deficiency of NADPH oxidase, can’t kill catalase positive bugs
• Chvostek’s Sign • • Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
• Clear nuclei • Thyroid papillary carcinoma (Orphan Annie’s eyes)
• Clue Cells • • Gardnerella vaginitis
• Codman’s Triangle • • osteosarcoma
• Coin Lesions in Lung • Pulmonary Hamartoma
• Cold Agglutinins • • Mycoplasma pneumoniae • • infectious mononucleosis
• Cold thyroid nodules • Colloid cyst or thyroid adenoma
• Concentric laminar intimal fibrosis of small arteries of lung • Primary pulmonary hypertension
• pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells ® ¯IF ® ¯Vit B12 ® megaloblastic anemia)
• Albright’s Syndrome • • polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café au lait spots, short stature, young girls
• Alport’s Syndrome • • hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness, Type 4 collagen defect (basement membranes)
• Alzheimer’s • • progressive dementia; tau proteins, neurofibrillary tangles, apolipoprotein E4 allele, narrow gyri and wide sulci (atrophy), occipital sparing, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, plaques in hippocampus and cortex, ¯ Acetylcholine, Hiramo bodies (inrtacellular inclusion bodies in hippocampal cells)
• Argyll-Robertson Pupil • • loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral) • • “Prostitute’s Eye” - accommodates but does not react • • Pathognomonic for 3°Syphilis
• Arnold-Chiari Malformation • • cerebellar tonsil herniation
• Barrett’s • • columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus ( risk of adenocarcinoma)
• Bartter’s Syndrome • • hyperreninemia
• Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy • • similar to Duchenne, but less severe (deficiency in dystrophin protein)
• Bell’s Palsy • • CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
• Berger’s Disease • • IgA nephropathy
• Bernard-Soulier Disease • • defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of platelet-surface glycoprotein)
• Berry Aneurysm • • circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed) • • often associated with ADPKD
• Bowen’s Disease • • carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis ( risk of visceral ca)
• Briquet’s Syndrome • • somatization disorder • • psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology
• Broca’s Aphasia • • Motor Aphasia intact comprehension
• Bronchiolitis • RSV
• Brown-Sequard • • hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch, UMN)
• Bruton’s Disease • • X-linked agammaglobinemia
• Budd-Chiari • • post-hepatic venous thrombosis
• Buerger’s Disease • • acute inflammation of small, medium arteries ® painful ischemia ® gangrene
• Burkitt’s Lymphoma • • small noncleaved cell lymphoma EBV • • 8:14 translocation
• Caisson Disease • • gas emboli
• Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Median nerve entrapment
• Chagas’ Disease • • Trypansoma infection sleeping disease, cardiomegaly with apical atrophy, achlasia
• Chediak-Higashi Disease • • Phagocyte Deficiency: neutropenia, albinism, cranial & peripheral neuropathy • • repeated infections
• Congenital adrenal hyperplasia • 21-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt loss, hypotension • 11-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt retention, hypertension
• Conn’s Syndrome • • primary aldosteronism
• Cori’s Disease • • glycogen storage disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
• Creutzfeldt-Jakob • • prion infection ® cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
• Crigler-Najjar Syndrome • • congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) • • glucuronyl transferase deficiency
• Crohn’s • • IBD; ileocecum, transmural, skip lesions, lymphocytic infiltrate, granulomas • (contrast to UC: limited to colon, mucosa & submucosa, crypt abscesses, pseudopolyps, colon cancer risk)
• Croup • Parainfluenza
• Curling’s Ulcer • • acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
• Cushing’s • • Disease: hypercorticism 2° to ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma) • • Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1° adrenal or ectopic)
• Cushing’s Ulcer • • acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma
• de Quervain’s Thyroiditis • • self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
• DiGeorge’s Syndrome • • thymic hypoplasia ® T-cell deficiency • • hypoparathyroidism
• Down’s Syndrome • • trisomy 21 or translocation
• Dressler’s Syndrome • • Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
• Dubin-Johnson Syndrome • • congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) • • striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
• Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy • • deficiency of dystrophin protein ® MD X-linked recessive
• Edwards’ Syndrome • • trisomy 18 • • rocker-bottom feet, low ears, heart disease
• Ehler’s-Danlos • • defective collagen
• Eisenmenger’s Complex • • late cyanotic shunt (R®L) pulmonary HTN & RVH 2° to long-standing VSD, ASD, or PDA
• Erb-Duchenne Palsy • • trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
• Ewing Sarcoma • • undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone
• Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat • • carcinoma in situ on glans penis
• Fanconi’s Syndrome • • impaired proximal tubular reabsorption 2° to lead poisoning or Tetracycline (glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, aminoaciduria, systemic acidosis)
• Felty’s Syndrome • • rheumatoid arthritis, neutropenia, splenomegaly
• Gardner’s Syndrome • • adenomatous polyps of colon plus osteomas & soft tissue tumors
• Gaucher’s Disease • • Lysosomal Storage Disease glucocerebrosidase deficiency • • hepatosplenomegaly, femoral head & long bone erosion, anemia • Crinkled tissue paper cells in marrow
• Gilbert’s Syndrome • • benign congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated
GIST • Tumor arising in cells of Cajal (pacemakers of gut)
• Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia • • defective glycoproteins on platelets
• Goodpasture’s • • autoimmune: ab’s to glomerular & alveolar basement membranes; linear immunofluorescence
• Grave’s Disease • • autoimmune hyperthyroidism (TSI)
• Guillain-Barre • • idiopathic polyneuritis (ascending muscle weakness & paralysis; usually self-limiting)
• Hamman-Rich Syndrome • • idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
• Hand-Schuller-Christian • • chronic progressive histiocytosis
• Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis • • autoimmune hypothyroidism (antimicrosomal or antithyroglobulin); Hurthle cells, thyroid germinal centers,
• Ha****oxicosis • • initial hyperthyroidism in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis that precedes hypothyroidism
• Henoch-Schonlein purpura • • hypersensivity vasculitis • • hemmorhagic urticaria (with fever, arthralgias, GI & renal involvement) • • associated with upper respiratory infections
• Hereditary Spherocytosis • RBC cytoskeletin defect, most commonly spectrin
• Hirschprung’s Disease • • aganglionic megacolon
• Horner’s Syndrome • • ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis (lesion of cervical sympathetic nerves often 2° to a Pancoast tumor)
• Huntington’s • • progressive degeneration of caudate nucleus, putamen & frontal cortex; AD
• Hunter’s • Decreased iduronosulfate sulfatase
• Hurler’s • Decreased alpha-L-iduronidase
• Jacksonian Seizures • • epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4)
• Job’s Syndrome • • immune deficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic stimuli
• Kaposi Sarcoma • • malignant vascular tumor (HHV8 in homosexual men)
• Kartagener’s Syndrome • • immotile cilia 2° to defective dynein arms infection, situs inversus, sterility
• Kawasaki Disease • • mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (lips, oral mucosa)
• Keratoconjunctivitis • adenovirus
• Klinefelter’s Syndrome • • 47, XXY
• Kluver-Bucy • • bilateral lesions of amygdala (hypersexuality; oral behavior)
• Krabbe Disease • Beta-galactosidase deficiency
• Krukenberg Tumor • • adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells (typically originating from the stomach) metastases to the ovaries
• Laennec’s Cirrhosis • • alcoholic cirrhosis
• Lesch-Nyhan • • HGPRT deficiency • • gout, retardation, self-mutilation
• Letterer-Siwe • • acute disseminated Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis
• Libman-Sacks • • endocarditis with small vegetations on valve leaflets • • associated with SLE
• Lou Gehrig’s • • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons
• Mallory-Weis Syndrome • • bleeding from esophagogastric lacerations 2° to wretching (alcoholics)
• Marfan’s • • elastin defect, floppy mitral valve, arachnodactyly, cystic medial necrosis, subluxed lens
• McArdle’s Disease • • glycogen storage disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency)
• Meckel’s Diverticulum • • rule of 2’s: 2 inches long, 2 feet from the ileocecum, in 2% of the population • • embryonic duct origin; may contain ectopic tissue (gastric, pancreatic, etc.)
• Meig’s Syndrome • • Triad: ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax
• Menetrier’s Disease • • giant hypertrophic gastritis (enlarged rugae; plasma protein loss)
• Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis • • calcification of the media (usually radial & ulnar aa.), pipestem arteries
• Munchausen Syndrome • • factitious disorder (consciously creates symptoms, but doesn’t know why)
• Meningioma • Arachnoid cap cells, whorls of cells
• Mesothelioma • Asbestos exposure
• Nelson’s Syndrome • • 1° Adrenal Cushings ® surgical removal of adrenals ® loss of negative feedback to pituitary ® Pituitary Adenoma
• Niemann-Pick • • Lysosomal Storage Disease sphingomyelinase deficiency • • “foamy histiocytes”
• Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome • • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
• Osteogenesis imperfecta • Type I collagen defect
• Paget’s Disease • • abnormal bone architecture (thickened, numerous fractures ® pain) , woven and lamellar bone mosaic
• Pancoast Tumor • • bronchogenic tumor with superior sulcus involvement ® Horner’s Syndrome
• Parkinson’s • • dopamine depletion in nigrostriatal tracts; Cogwheel rigidity
• Peutz-Jegher’s Syndrome • • melanin pigmentation of lips, mouth, hand, genitalia plus hamartomatous polyps of small intestine
• Peyronie’s Disease • • subcutaneous fibrosis of dorsum of penis
• Pick’s Disease • • progressive dementia similar to Alzheimer’s, knife-edged gyri
• Plummer’s Syndrome • • hyperthyroidism, nodular goiter, absence of eye signs (Plummer’s = Grave’s - eye signs)
• Plummer-Vinson • • esophageal webs & iron-deficiency anemia, SCCA of esophagus
• Pompe’s Disease • • glycogen storage disease (acid maltase deficiency) ® cardiomegaly
• Pott’s Disease • • tuberculous osteomyelitis of the vertebrae
• Potter’s Complex • • renal agenesis ® oligohydramnios ® hypoplastic lungs, defects in extremities
• Raynaud’s • • Disease: recurrent vasospasm in extremities • • Phenomenon: 2° to underlying disease (SLE or scleroderma)
• Reiter’s Syndrome • • urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis non-infectious (but often follows infections), HLA-B27, polyarticular
• Reye’s Syndrome • • microvesicular fatty liver change & encephalopathy • • 2° to aspirin ingestion in children following viral illness
• Riedel’s Thyroiditis • • idiopathic fibrous replacement of thyroid
Rotor Syndrome • • congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated) • • similar to Dubin-Johnson, but no discoloration of the liver
• Sezary Syndrome • • leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)
• Shaver’s Disease • • aluminum inhalation ® lung fibrosis
• Sheehan’s Syndrome • • postpartum pituitary necrosis
• Shy-Drager • • parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction & orthostatic hypotension
• Simmond’s Disease • • pituitary cachexia
• Sipple’s Syndrome • • MEN type IIa (pheochromocytoma, thyroid medulla, parathyroid)
• Sjogren’s Syndrome • • triad: dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis risk of B-cell lymphoma
• Spitz Nevus • • juvenile melanoma (always benign)
• Stein-Leventhal • • polycystic ovary
• Stevens-Johnson Syndrome • • erythema multiforme, fever, malaise, mucosal ulceration (often 2° to infection or sulfa drugs)
• Struma Ovarii • Thyroid teratoma of ovary
• Still’s Disease • • juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (absence of rheumatoid factor)
• Takayasu’s arteritis • • aortic arch syndrome • • loss of carotid, radial or ulnar pulses
• Tay-Sachs • • gangliosidosis (hexosaminidase A deficiency ® GM2 ganglioside)
• Tetralogy of Fallot • • تVSD, ثoverriding aorta, جpulmonary artery stenosis, حright ventricular hypertrophy
• Tourette’s Syndrome • • involuntary actions, both motor and vocal
• Turcot’s Syndrome • • adenomatous polyps of colon plus CNS tumors
• Turner’s Syndrome • • 45, XO
• Typhoid Fever • Bradycardia and in white people rose spots on abdomen
• Vincent’s Infection • • “trench mouth” - acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
• von Gierke’s Disease • • glycogen storage disease (G6Pase deficiency)
• von Hippel-Lindau • • hemangioma (or hemangioblastoma) • • adenomas of the viscera, especially renal cell carcinoma • defect in VHL tumor suppressor
• von Recklinghausen’s • • neurofibromatosis & café au lait spots & Lisch nodule (iris hamartomas)
• von Recklinghausen’s Disease of Bone • • osteitis fibrosa cystica (“brown tumor”) 2° to hyperparathyroidism
• von Willebrand’s Disease • • defect in platelet adhesion 2° to deficiency in vWF; increased bleeding time and PTT
• Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia • • proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells
• Wallenberg’s Syndrome • • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) thrombosis “Medullary Syndrome” • • Ipsilateral: ataxia, facial pain & temp; Contralateral: body pain & temp
• Waterhouse-Friderichsen • • catastrophic adrenal insufficiency 2° to hemorrhagic necrosis (eg, DIC) • • often 2° to meningiococcemia
• Weber’s Syndrome • • Paramedian Infarct of Midbrain • • Ipsilateral: mydriasis; Contralateral: UMN paralysis (lower face & body)
• Wegener’s Granulomatosis • • necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of paranasal sinuses, lungs, kidneys, etc.
• Weil’s Disease • • leptospirosis
• Wermer’s Syndrome • • MEN type I (thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets, pituitary)
• Wernicke’s Aphasia • • Sensory Aphasia impaired comprehension
• Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome • • thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia)
• Whipple’s Disease • • malabsorption syndrome (with bacteria-laden macrophages) & polyarthritis
• Wilson’s Disease • • hepatolenticular degeneration (copper accumulation & decrease in ceruloplasmin)
• Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome • • immunodeficiency: combined B- &T-cell deficiency (thrombocytopenia & eczema)
• Wolff-Chaikoff Effect • • high iodine level (-)’s thyroid hormone synthesis
• Zenker’s Diverticulum • • esophageal; cricopharyngeal muscles above UES
• Zollinger-Ellison • • gastrin-secreting tumor of pancreas (or intestine) ® acid ® intractable ulcers

Bloody Mary

Adhesive arachnoiditis • Caused by bacterial meningitis, leads to obstructive hydrocephalus
• Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation • • Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
• AFP increase • Neural tube defects, hepatocellular carcinoma, yolk sac and embryonal carcinoma
• AFP decrease • Down’s
• Amnion nodosum • Renal agenesis
• Amyloid in thyroid • Thyroid medullary carcinoma (calcitonin)
• Analgesic abuse • Papillary necrosis, esp. in diabetics
• Anasarca • Minimal change disease
• Aneurysmal nodules • Polyarteritis nodosa
• Angiomyolipoma • Tuberous sclerosis
• Anosmia • Kallman’s syndrome
• Anterior vermian atrophy • alcoholism
• Anti-centromere antibody • Limited scleroderma (CREST)
• Anti-DNA topoisomerase antibody • Diffuse scleroderma
• Anti-endomysial antibody • Celiac sprue
• Anti-jo antibody • polymositis
• Anti-mitochondrial antibody • Primary biliary cirrhosis
• Antiplatelet Antibodies • • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
• Anti-sacharommyces cervisiae antibody • Crohn’s
• Anti-Smith antibodies • Specific for SLE, anti-ribonulceoprotein
• Anti-smooth muscle antibody • Autoimmune hepatitis type I
• Arachnodactyly • • Marfan’s
• Aschoff Bodies • • rheumatic fever
• Ashleaf spots (skin) • Tuberous sclerosis
• Atypical lymphocytes • EBV
• Auer Rods • • acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)
• Autosplenectomy • • sickle cell anemia
• Babinski • • UMN lesion
• Bacterial conjuntivitis • S. aureus, strep. pneumo, Hemophilus aegyptius
• Basophilic Stippling of RBCs • • lead poisoning
• Condyloma Lata • • 2° Syphilis • • new coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel
• Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis • Polycystic Kidney Disease, juvenile autosomal recessive form
• Contraction Band Necrosis • MI
• Cotton Wool Spots • • HTN
• Councilman Bodies • • dying hepatocytes
• Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule • • rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
• Crushed ping pong balls • • Pneumocystis carinii
• Crypt abscesses • Ulcerative colitis
• Currant-Jelly Sputum • • Klebsiella
• Curschmann’s Spirals • • bronchial asthma
• Cystathioine synthase deficieny • homocystinuria
D-dimers • DIC
• Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra • • Parkinson’s
• Dew drop on rose petal • Chicken pox
• Diaphragmatic pleural plaques • Asbestosis
• Donovan Bodies • • granuloma inguinale (STD)
• Double bubble sign on ultrasound • Down’s syndorme - duodenal atresia
• Duret Hemorrhages • Uncal herniation
• Eburnation • • osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
• Eccentric intimal fibrosis with medial hypertrophy • Chronic transplant rejection
• Ectopia Lentis • • Marfan’s
• Embolizing endocarditis • Infectious, marantic (fibrin deposits in hypercoagulable states)
• Erythema Chronicum Migrans • • Lyme Disease
• Excavation of Optic Cup • Glaucoma
• Exopthalmos • hyperthyroid
• FAT RN • TTP (fever, anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, neuro problems)
• Fatty Liver • • Alcoholism
• Fecalith • Acute appendicitis
• False positive VDRL • SLE, Treponema pertenue (non-STD tropical infection)
• Ferruginous Bodies • • asbestosis
• Fish-mouthed mitral valve • Rheumatic heart disease
• Flea-bitten Kidney • Malignant Hypertension
• Frontal bossing • Sickle cell anemia
• Fungus ball in lung • Apergillus
• galactosemia • Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency or galactokinase deficiency
• Garlic odor on breath • Arsenic (or lasagna)
• Ghon Complex • • Tuberculosis, primary
• Gold Pneumonia • Lipid pneumonia, exogenous (aspiration) or endogenous (obstruction
• Gower’s Maneuver • • Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand
• Gray discoloration of skin • Argyria (silver poisoning)
• Hat size increase • Paget’s disease of bone
• Heart Failure Cells • CHF; hemosiderin-laden macrophages in lungs
• Heberden’s Nodes • • Osteoarthritis (DIP)
• Heinz Bodies • • G6PDH Deficiency
• Hemarthrosis • Coagulation factor deficiency
• Hemorrhagic Temporal Lobe Lesion • HSV
• Hemorrhagic Urticaria • • Henoch-Schonlein
• Heterophil Antibodies • • infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
• Hirano Bodies • • Alzheimer’s
• HLA B27 • Ankylosing spondylitis
• ochronosis (dark pigment of fibrous tissue) • Alkaptonuria -homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency
• Honeycomb lung • Pulmonary fibrosis
• Howell Jolley Bodies • Splenectomy, remnant of nuclear DNA
• H shaped vertebrae • Sickle cell anemia
• Human placental lactogen increase • Placental site trophoblastic tumor
• Hyaline thrombi • TTP
• Hydrosalpinx • Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease
• Hypersegmented PMNs • • Megaloblastic anemia
• Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs • • iron-deficiency anemia
• IgM against IgG • Rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor)
• ¯ Immunoglobulins • X-linked Brutons agammaglobulinemia, and common variable immunodeficiency
• Index finger overlapping 3rd and 4th • Edward’s (Trisomy 18)
• Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction • • Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis
• Joint Mice • • osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
• Kaussmaul Breathing • • acidosis
• Keratin Pearls • • SCCA
• Kernig’s sign • meningitis
• Keyser-Fleischer Ring • • Wilson’s
• Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules • • diabetic nephropathy
• Koilocytes • • HPV
• Koplik Spots • • measles
• Lacunar cells • Variant of Reed-Sternberg cell seen in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s Disease
• Lacunar infarct • Chronic hypertension
Lamellar bodies • Contain surfactant in Type II pneumocytes
• Langhans giant cells • Tuberculosis, other including coccidioides
• Lemon yellow skin color • Pernicious anemia
• Lemon sign • Ultrasonographic finding in Neural Tube Defects
• Leukocoria • Retinoblastoma
• Lewy Bodies • • Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
• Leukocyte alk. Phos. Positive • Leukemoid rxn.
• Lines of Zahn • • arterial thrombus
• Lisch Nodules • • neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease)
• Loss of grey-white junction • Tuberous sclerosis
• Low set ears • Downs, DiGeorge, Trisomy 18 (Edwards)
• Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli • • poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
• Machine-like murmur • Patent ductus arteriosus
• Macronodular cirrhosis • Wilson’s, viral hepatitis, alpha-1-antitrypsin
• Malignant pustule • Anthrax (black skin lesion)
• Mallory Bodies • Alcoholic liver disease: intermediate filaments of hepatocyte cytoskeleton
• Maple syrup/burnt sugar urine • Alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency; valine, leucine and isoleucine build up (branched)
• McBurney’s Sign • • appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
• Meconium ileus • Cystic Fibrosis
• Mees lines • Arsenic (parallel lines on fingernails)
• Melanosis coli • Laxative abuse
• Mental probs. with heart defect • Mitral prolapse
• Michealis-Gutmann Bodies • • Malakoplakia, an abnormal tissue response to kidney infection
• Microglial nodules • HIV
• Micrognathia • DiGeorge
• Micronodular cirrhosis • Wilsons, alcoholic, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis
• Microsatellite instability • HNPCC (right-sided colon cancer), but also possible in other cancers
• Mid-systolic click • Mitral prolapse
• Monoclonal Antibody Spike • • multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA) • • MGUS
• Mousy / musty odor • PKU
• Mucosal bleeding • Platelet problem (qualitative or quantitative)
• Myxedema • • hypothyroidism
• Necrolytic migratory erythema dermatitis • a-cell islet tumor
• Negri Bodies and hydrophobia • • rabies
• Neuritic Plaques • • Alzheimer’s
• Neurofibrillary Tangles • • Alzheimer’s
• Night pain relieved by aspirin • Osteoid osteoma
• Non-embolizing endocarditis • Rheumatic, Libman-Sacks (with SLE)
• Non-pitting Edema • • Myxedema • • Anthrax Toxin
• Notching of Ribs • • Coarctation of Aorta
• Nutmeg Liver • • CHF, right heart
• Onion skin kidney arterioles • Malignant nephrosclerosis (malignant hypertension)
• Oligoclonal band • Multiple sclerosis
• Osteoid production • osteosarcoma
• Painless Jaundice • • pancreatic CA (head)
• Palatal Petechaie • Strep pharyngitis
• Palpable purpura • Hypersensitivity vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein, serum sickness)
• Pancarditis • Rheumatic fever
• Pannus • • rheumatoid arthritis
• PAS positive macrophages • Whipple’s disease
• Patent ductus arteriosus • Maternal rubella and prematurity
• Pautrier’s Microabscesses • • mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
• Periductal edema • Gynecomastia
• Periventricular Calcifications • Congenital CMV (brain ventricles, that is)
• Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency • PKU
• Philadelphia Chromosome • • CML
• Pick Bodies • • Pick’s Disease
• Piecemeal Necrosis • Chronic active hepatitis (periportal hepatocytes)
• Plexiform lesions • Pulmonary HTN (aneurysmal expansion of vessel wall)
• Pink, foamy lung exudate • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
• Pink Puffer • • Emphysema Centroacinar - smoking Panacinar - a1-antitrypsin deficiency
• Podagra • • gout (MP joint of hallux)
Porcelain gallbladder • Chronic cholecystitis (scarring)
• Porcelain gallstones • Associated with gallbladder adenocarcinoma
• Port-Wine Stain • • Hemangioma
• Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign • • tearing of the ACL
• Proliferating bile ducts • Obstructive jaundice
• Psammoma Bodies • • Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid • • Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary • • Meningioma • • Mesothelioma
• Pseudohypertrophy • • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
• Pseudopoyps • Ulcerative colitis
• Pulmonary atherosclerosis • Cor pulmonale
• Punched-Out Bone Lesions • • multiple myeloma
• Punched-out esophageal lesions • herpes
• Rash on Palms & Soles • • 2° Syphilis • • RMSF
• RBC poikilocytosis • Beta-thalassemia
• Rectangular RBC’s • Hemoglobin SC
• Red hyalin globules • Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (in liver)
• Red Morning Urine • • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
• Reed-Sternberg Cells • • Hodgkin’s Disease
• Reid Index Increased • • chronic bronchitis
• Reinke Crystals • • Leydig cell tumor
• Rhomboid crystals • Pseudogout
• Rim pattern • SLE, staining pattern with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies
• Rockerbottom feet • Patau (Trisomy 13), Edward’s (Trisomy 18)
• Rose thorns • Sporotrichosis
• Rouleaux Formation • • multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips
• Rugae loss • Pernicious anemia (atrophic gastritis)
• S3 Heart Sound • • L®R Shunt (VSD, PDA) • • Mitral Regurg • • LV Failure
• S4 Heart Sound • • Pulmonary Stenosis • • Pulmonary HTN
• Scalloped colloid • Grave’s disease
• Schwartzman Reaction • • Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
• Shagreen patches • Tuberous sclerosis
• Simian Crease • • Down’s
• Smith Antigen • • SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
• Smudge cells • CLL (delicate cells easily destroyed on peripheral smear)
• Soap Bubble on X-Ray • • giant cell tumor of bone
• Soldiers plaque • Clinically insignificant remnant of healed pericarditis
• Spider telangiectasia • Hyperestrinism: liver faillure, pregnancy
• Spike & Dome Glomeruli • • membranous glomerulonephritis
• Splinter hemorrhages • Infective endocarditis
• Strawberry tongue • Scarlet fever, Kawasaki’s
• Strawberry cervix • Trichomonas vaginalis
• Strawberry gallbladder • cholesterolosis
• String Sign on X-ray • • Crohn’s bowel wall thickening
• Sugar icing on spleen • Portal hypertension
• Sulfer granules • Collection of actinomyces or nocardia organisms in chronic abscessing bronchopneumonia
• Swiss cheese brain • Clostridia (gas forming)
• Syncitia • RSV, measles
• Tamm-Horsfall protein • Hyaline casts (non-specific)
• Target Cells • • Thalassemia
• Teardrop RBCs • Myelofibrosis
• Temporal lobe encephalitis • Herpes
• Tendinous Xanthomas • • Familial Hypercholesterolemia
• Tethered cord • Arnold-Chiari malformation (tonsilar herniation)
• Tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor def. • PKU
• Thymidine dimers • Xeroderma pigmentosum
• Thymus, parathyroid agenesis • Digeorge (3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch)
• Thyroidization of Kidney • • chronic pyelonephritis
• TIBC increase • Anemia of chronic disease
• Tingible Bodies • Macrophage in lymph node germinal centers
• Tophi • • gout
• Tram-Track Glomeruli • • membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
• Tree bark aorta • Syphilis


  #2

this is awesome! Justice Prevailed!!!!!


  #3

Oh my god!!
Great job dude!!!!!!


  #4

wow.nodsmiling face



  #5

wow... nice... thanx...


  #6

this is fantastic


  #7

thank u Justice this is very helpful ..


  #8

tongsaa wrote:
this is awesome! Justice Prevailed!!!!!---







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