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U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
• The USPSTF recommends against the routine use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to prevent colorectal cancer in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer.
Rating: D recommendation.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine screening for bladder cancer in adults.

• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine referral for genetic counseling or routine breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) testing for women whose family history is not associated with an increased risk for deleterious mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) or breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2).
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends that women whose family history is associated with an increased risk for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes be referred for genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine referral for genetic counseling or routine breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) testing for women whose family history is not associated with an increased risk for deleterious mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) or breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2).
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends that women whose family history is associated with an increased risk for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes be referred for genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening mammography, with or without clinical breast examination (CBE), every 1-2 years for women aged 40 and older.
Rating: B recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine CBE alone to screen for breast cancer.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against teaching or performing routine breast self-examination (BSE).
Rating: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine use of tamoxifen or raloxifene for the primary prevention of breast cancer in women at low or average risk for breast cancer. (Select Clinical Considerations for a discussion of risk.)
Rating: D recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends that clinicians discuss chemoprevention with women at high risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse effects of chemoprevention. (Select Clinical Considerations for a discussion of risk.) Clinicians should inform patients of the potential benefits and harms of chemoprevention.
Rating: B recommendation.
• The USPSTF strongly recommends screening for cervical cancer in women who have been sexually active and have a cervix.
Rating: A recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routinely screening women older than age 65 for cervical cancer if they have had adequate recent screening with normal Pap smears and are not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer (go to Clinical Considerations).
Rating: D recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine Pap smear screening in women who have had a total hysterectomy for benign disease.
Rating: D recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against the routine use of new technologies to screen for cervical cancer.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against the routine use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a primary screening test for cervical cancer.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF strongly recommends that clinicians screen men and women 50 years of age or older for colorectal cancer.
Rating: A recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening asymptomatic persons for lung cancer with either low dose computerized tomography (LDCT), chest x-ray (CXR), sputum cytology, or a combination of these tests.
Rating: I Recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routinely screening adults for oral cancer.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine screening for pancreatic cancer in asymptomatic adults using abdominal palpation, ultrasonography, or serologic markers.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing or digital rectal examination (DRE).
Rating: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing or digital rectal examination (DRE).
Rating: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for skin cancer using a total-body skin examination for the early detection of cutaneous melanoma, basal cell cancer, or squamous cell skin cancer.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine counseling by primary care clinicians to prevent skin cancer.
Rating: I Recommendation
• The USPSTF strongly recommends that clinicians screen all adults for tobacco use and provide tobacco cessation interventions for those who use tobacco products.
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF strongly recommends that clinicians screen all pregnant women for tobacco use and provide augmented pregnancy-tailored counseling to those who smoke.
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for tobacco use or interventions to prevent and treat tobacco use and dependence among children or adolescents.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against the use of supplements of vitamins A, C, or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against the use of beta-carotene supplements, either alone or in combination, for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease.
Rating: D recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends one-time screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) by ultrasonography in men aged 65 to 75 who have ever smoked.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF makes no recommendation for or against screening for AAA in men aged 65 to 75 who have never smoked.
Rating: C Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for AAA in women.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends that clinicians discuss aspirin chemoprevention with adults who are at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) (Go to Clinical Considerations). Discussions with patients should address both the potential benefits and harms of aspirin therapy.
Rating: A recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 and older for high blood pressure.
Ratings: A recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for high blood pressure in children and adolescents to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Ratings: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine screening with resting electrocardiography (ECG), exercise treadmill test (ETT), or electron-beam computerized tomography (EBCT) scanning for coronary calcium for either the presence of severe coronary artery stenosis (CAS) or the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in adults at low risk for CHD events.
Rating: D recommendation.
• The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening with ECG, ETT, or EBCT scanning for coronary calcium for either the presence of severe CAS or the prediction of CHD events in adults at increased risk for CHD events.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends that clinicians routinely screen men aged 35 years and older and women aged 45 years and older for lipid disorders and treat abnormal lipids in people who are at increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Rating: A recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen younger adults (men aged 20 to 35 and women aged 20 to 45) for lipid disorders if they have other risk factors for coronary heart disease. (Go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors.)
Rating: B recommendation
• The USPSTF makes no recommendation for or against routine screening for lipid disorders in younger adults (men aged 20 to 35 or women aged 20 to 45) in the absence of known risk factors for coronary heart disease.
Rating: C recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends that screening for lipid disorders include measurement of total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
Rating: B recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against triglyceride measurement as a part of routine screening for lipid disorders.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for lipid disorders in infants, children, adolescents, or young adults (up to age 20). This is a grade I Statement.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force strongly recommends that all pregnant women be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria using urine culture at 12-16 weeks' gestation.
Rating: A recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against the routine screening of men and nonpregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria.
Rating: D recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for chlamydial infection for all sexually active non-pregnant young women aged 24 and younger and for older non-pregnant women who are at increased risk . This is a grade A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends screening for chlamydial infection for all pregnant women aged 24 and younger and for older pregnant women who are at increased risk . This is a grade B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routinely providing screening for chlamydial infection for women aged 25 and older, whether or not they are pregnant, if they are not at increased risk . This is a grade C Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydial infection for men . This is a grade I Statement.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that clinicians screen all sexually active women, including those who are pregnant, for gonorrhea infection if they are at increased risk for infection (that is, if they are young or have other individual or population risk factors; go to Clinical Considerations for further discussion of risk factors).
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening for gonorrhea infection in men at increased risk for infection (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors).
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for gonorrhea infection in men and women who are at low risk for infection (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors).
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening for gonorrhea infection in pregnant women who are not at increased risk for infection (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors).
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit.
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routinely screening the general asymptomatic population for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in asymptomatic adults who are not at increased risk (general population) for infection.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening for HCV infection in adults at high risk for infection.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine serological screening for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in asymptomatic pregnant women at any time during pregnancy to prevent neonatal HSV infection.
Rating: D Recommendation
• The USPSTF recommends against routine serological screening for HSV in asymptomatic adolescents and adults.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends that clinicians screen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) all adolescents and adults at increased risk for HIV infection (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors).
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF makes no recommendation for or against routinely screening for HIV adolescents and adults who are not at increased risk for HIV infection (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors).
Rating: C Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends that clinicians screen persons at increased risk for syphilis infection.
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF strongly recommends that clinicians screen all pregnant women for syphilis infection.
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening of asymptomatic persons who are not at increased risk for syphilis infection.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening of parents or guardians for the physical abuse or neglect of children, of women for intimate partner violence, or of older adults or their caregivers for elder abuse.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the incremental benefit, beyond the efficacy of legislation and community-based interventions, of counseling in the primary care setting, in improving rates of proper use of motor vehicle occupant restraints (child safety seats, booster seats, and lap-and-shoulder belts). (Go to Clinical Considerations for definitions of proper use.)

Rating: I Recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse (go to Clinical Considerations) by adults, including pregnant women, in primary care settings.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening and behavioral counseling interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol misuse by adolescents in primary care settings.
Rating: I Recommendation
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening and behavioral counseling interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol misuse by adolescents in primary care settings.
Rating: I Recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening adults for depression in clinical practices that have systems in place to assure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and followup.
Rating: B recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening of children or adolescents for depression.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening by primary care clinicians to detect suicide risk in the general population.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routinely screening asymptomatic adults for type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends screening for type 2 diabetes in adults with hypertension or hyperlipidemia.
Rating: B Recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine behavioral counseling to promote a healthy diet in unselected patients in primary care settings.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends intensive behavioral dietary counseling for adult patients with hyperlipidemia and other known risk factors for cardiovascular and diet-related chronic disease. Intensive counseling can be delivered by primary care clinicians or by referral to other specialists, such as nutritionists or dietitians.
Rating: B recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine genetic screening for hereditary hemochromatosis in the asymptomatic general population.

Rating: D Recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the routine use of combined estrogen and progestin for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against the routine use of unopposed estrogen for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women who have had a hysterectomy.
Rating: D Recommendation.
Rationale: The USPSTF found
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for iron deficiency anemia in asymptomatic children aged 6 to 12 months.

Rating: I Recommendation
• The USPSTF recommends routine screening for iron deficiency anemia in asymptomatic pregnant women.

Rating: B Recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for iron deficiency anemia in asymptomatic children aged 6 to 12 months.

Rating: I Recommendation
• The USPSTF recommends routine screening for iron deficiency anemia in asymptomatic pregnant women.

Rating: B Recommendation
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against the use of moderate- or low-intensity counseling together with behavioral interventions to promote sustained weight loss in obese adults.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against the use of counseling of any intensity and behavioral interventions to promote sustained weight loss in overweight adults.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against behavioral counseling in primary care settings to promote physical activity.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for thyroid disease in adults.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against the routine use of interventions to prevent low back pain in adults in primary care settings.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that women aged 65 and older be screened routinely for osteoporosis. The USPSTF recommends that routine screening begin at age 60 for women at increased risk for osteoporotic fractures (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of women at increased risk).
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF makes no recommendation for or against routine osteoporosis screening in postmenopausal women who are younger than 60 or in women aged 60-64 who are not at increased risk for osteoporotic fractures.
Rating: C Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routinely screening high-risk pregnant women for bacterial vaginosis (BV). (Go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of populations at high risk.)
Rating: I recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routinely screening average-risk asymptomatic pregnant women for BV.
Rating: D recommendation
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends structured breastfeeding education and behavioral counseling programs to promote breastfeeding.
Rating: B recommendation
• The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the following interventions to promote breastfeeding: brief education and counseling by primary care providers; peer counseling used alone and initiated in the clinical setting; and written materials, used alone or in combination with other interventions.
Rating: I recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for gestational diabetes.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends Rh (D) blood typing and antibody testing for all pregnant women during their first visit for pregnancy-related care.
Rating: A Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends repeated Rh (D) antibody testing for all unsensitized Rh (D)-negative women at 24-28 weeks' gestation, unless the biological father is known to be Rh (D)-negative.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation at currently recommended doses to preschool children older than 6 months of age whose primary water source is deficient in fluoride.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine risk assessment of preschool children by primary care clinicians for the prevention of dental disease.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening of newborns for hearing loss during the postpartum hospitalization.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that evidence is insufficient to recommend routine screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip in infants as a means to prevent adverse outcomes.a
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the routine screening of asymptomatic adolescents for idiopathic scoliosis.
Rating: D Recommendation.
Children
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic children aged 1 to 5 who are at increased risk. (Go to Clinical Considerations for a discussion of risk.)
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic children aged 1 to 5 years who are at average risk.
Rating: D Recommendation.
Pregnant Women
• The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic pregnant women.
Rating: D Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for lipid disorders in infants, children, adolescents, or young adults (up to age 20). This is a grade I Statement.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for overweight in children and adolescents as a means to prevent adverse health outcomes.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine use of brief, formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay in children up to 5 years of age.
Rating: I Recommendation.
• The USPSTF recommends screening to detect amblyopia, strabismus, and defects in visual acuity in children younger than age 5 years.
Rating: B Recommendation.
• The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening adults for glaucoma.
Rating: I Recommendation.






  #2

Thanks! smiling face


  #3

only if it could just give the positive reccos! this is too much information

thanks for trying





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